Project Report / Essay on Natural Resources
Natural Resources Introduction :
Natural Resources : Stocks of the nature, useful to the man kinds are called natural
resources. They are air, water, soil, minerals, coal, petroleum, Animals & plants.
Today the basic needs of the life are fulfilled by material present in
nature. We manipulate these Resources to produce whatever is required. The
primitive Human beings had used only those resources that supported their life.
The growing population, industrialization, consequent urbanization has compelled
us to over exploit these natural resources.
Classification of Natural Resources:
Natural resources are broadly classified into two categories:
- Inexhaustible Natural Resources
- Exhaustible Natural Resources
(a) Inexhaustible Natural Resources :
Inexhaustible resources are present in unlimited quantity in the nature and they are
not likely to be exhausted by human activities.
- Solar radiation
(b) Exhaustible natural resources :
The stock of Exhaustible resources in the nature is limited. They are susceptible
to be degraded in quantity and quality by the human activities. Some of the
exhaustible natural resources are:
- Wild life
- Petroleum, etc.
Natural Resources in Air : Air is an important form of inexhaustible natural resources which is
essential for our survival. Air contains of a mixture of gases containing
Nitrogen (78%) and Oxygen (21%). Carbon-dioxide, Ammonia, Ozone and Noble Gases
(Helium, argon, etc.) constitute to 1% of the total volume of the air.
Atmosphere is the layer of air above the earth surface. The density of the
air in the atmosphere varies at different altitudes from the surface of the
earth. The atmosphere is thus divided into different zones. The air which we
breath e exists in the first zone, 10 to12 km from the surface of the earth.
This zone of the atmosphere is called Troposphere.
Above this is called Stratosphere. This is rich ozone gas forming ozone
layer. It absorbs the harmful ultraviolet rays like cataracts, inflammatory
diseases, cancer etc. Thus protects our lives.
Natural Resources in Water :Water is essential for the substance of the life. The density of the water is
similar to that of Protoplasm. We have both the surface and the ground water.
India has rich water bodies like rivers, ponds, lakes etc. water resources in
the country is estimated to have an average run off in the river system of
1869km cube and 432 km cube ground water. This is available to us from the
rainfall and the snow, which is a part of the Hydrological cycle.
According to the intensity of the annual rainfall, we have four zones:
- Wet zone: Over 200 cm.
- Intermediate zone: 100-200 cm.
- Semi arid zone: 50-100 cm.
- Arid zone; 20-50 cm.
Water that relocates into the ground through the pore spaces of the rocks is
available as ground water. The porous rocks are saturated with water at a
certain level below the surface that is known as zone of saturation. The upper
level of the zone is called the water-table. The water-table is expressed with
reference to the mean sea level. However, the vertical distance from the place
on the surface to the water-table is called water-level. The water-table and
water level is shown in the figure.
Natural Resources in Soil :Soil is another main natural resource essential for our survival and
development. We fulfill our requirement of food, clothing and shelter mainly
from the plants that grow in the soil or from animals that feed on such plants.
Soil is the uppermost crust of the earth. The interaction b/w physical and
Biological components format it.
The types of soil:
- Alluvial soil : it is rich in loam and clay
- Black soil : it has predominantly clay
- Red soil : it is sandy to loam
- Mountain soil : it is a stony sandy soil
- Desert soil : it is sandy and poor in organic carbon
- Literate soil : it has porous clay
Other Natural Resources :The coal, petroleum, iron, aluminum, copper silver, and gold are among the
important natural resources to the mankind. The coal and petroleum have been our
sources of energy. The metals, non-metals, mineral, fuels and lubricants are
irreplaceable unlike air or water.
They are used:
- Medicine and surgery
- Labor saving and luxury equipment’s
- and National defense
The nuclear or atomic energy produced but the nuclear reaction occurring in
metals like uranium and thorium. The minerals resources play a big role in the
economy of the country.